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23/06/2013

Espionnage informatique par les USA : Snowden a quitté Hong Kong

lu sur :

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/24/world/asia/nsa-leaker-leaves-hong-kong-local-officials-say.html?emc=edit_na_20130623

HONG KONG — The Hong Kong government announced on Sunday afternoon that it had allowed the departure from its territory of Edward J. Snowden, the former National Security Agency contractor who has acknowledged disclosing classified documents about United States government surveillance of Internet and telephone communications around the world.

The government statement said that Hong Kong had informed the United States of Mr. Snowden’s departure.

A Moscow-based reservations agent at Aeroflot, Russia’s national airline, said that Mr. Snowden was aboard flight SU213 to Moscow, traveling on a one-way ticket to Moscow. The Aeroflot flight landed in Moscow on Sunday afternoon.

Mr. Snowden’s final destination was unclear, but there were signs that it might be beyond Moscow. The Russian foreign ministry said that Mr. Snowden appeared to be making a connection in Moscow to another destination, but did not say where.

Russia’s Interfax news service, citing a “person familiar with the situation,” reported that Mr. Snowden would remain in transit at an airport in Moscow for “several hours” pending an onward flight to Cuba, and would therefore not formally cross the Russian border or be subject to detention. Someone close to Mr. Snowden later told Interfax that he planned to continue on to Caracas, Venezuela.

“He chose such a complex route in the hope that he will not be detained and he will be able to reach his final destination — Venezuela — unhindered,” the person said.

WikiLeaks, the organization that released extensive classified American diplomatic communications three years ago, said in a statement on its Twitter feed that it had “assisted Mr. Snowden’s political asylum in a democratic country, travel papers” and safe exit from Hong Kong, and said in a follow-up Twitter posting that, “Mr. Snowden is currently over Russian airspace accompanied by WikiLeaks legal advisers.”

The Aeroflot agent said that Mr. Snowden is traveling with one other person, with the surname Harrison, but the agent declined to release the other traveler’s first name, saying that she did not have the authorization to do so. The closest adviser to Julian Assange, who orchestrated the release of the Wikileaks diplomatic cables three years ago, is named Sarah Harrison, and WikiLeaks later confirmed that she was assisting Mr. Snowden.

His departure from Hong Kong was a setback for the United States, which had been pressing Hong Kong to surrender him to American law enforcement officials. The Hong Kong government said on Sunday, in its first detailed statement about Mr. Snowden, that the United States had made a legal request for the issue of a provisional warrant of arrest against Mr. Snowden, but that the Hong Kong government had concluded that the request “did not fully comply with the legal requirements under Hong Kong law.”

The statement said that Hong Kong had requested more information from the United States but had not received it. Because the government “has yet to have sufficient information to process the request for provisional warrant of arrest, there is no legal basis to restrict Mr. Snowden from leaving Hong Kong,” the statement said.

In a statement Sunday, a Justice Department spokeswoman, Nanda Chitre, confirmed that Hong Kong authorities had told Washington of Mr. Snowden's departure and said that the government would pursue Mr. Snowden's case. "We will continue to discuss this matter with Hong Kong and pursue relevant law enforcement cooperation with other countries where Mr. Snowden may be attempting to travel,” Ms. Chitre said.

The statement from the Hong Kong government also said it had written to the United States government to ask for clarification about media reports that Mr. Snowden had released documents showing that United States government agencies had hacked computer systems here, adding that the Hong Kong government, “will continue to follow up on the matter so as to protect the legal rights of the people of Hong Kong.”

Late Saturday, a Hong Kong newspaper, The South China Morning Post, reported additional details of the N.S.A.'s spying on Hong Kong and China, apparently based on an interview with Mr. Snowden on June 12. Mr. Snowden told the newspaper that the N.S.A. had tapped into Chinese mobile phone companies to read millions of text messages, hacked dozens of computers at Beijing’s prestigious Tsinghua University and other computers operated by Pacnet, a major telecommunications company with headquarters in Hong Kong and Singapore.

While there was no independent confirmation of the claims, all the operations described by Mr. Snowden are consistent with the N.S.A.'s aggressive monitoring of foreign communications. And the newspaper’s report could win Mr. Snowden more public support in China and Hong Kong.

In Moscow, Dmitri S. Peskov, a spokesman for President Vladimir V. Putin of Russia, said the Kremlin had not been informed of Mr. Snowden’s plans to travel to Russia.

“I don’t know if he is coming with a visa or without a visa,” Mr. Peskov said. “We are not tracing his movements. I am not sure if he is coming. If he is coming, we will wait and see.”

He said if Mr. Snowden applies for asylum in Russia, his application would be considered, adding that every application is considered.

“There is a procedure, and it will be applied,” he said. “If there is an application, it is going to be considered. If there is no application, we will do what is prescribed by law will be performed.”

Asked what the law prescribes in the latter case, he said, “you’d have to ask the police about that.”

He said Mr. Snowden’s case was not fundamentally a concern of the Russian government.

Mr. Snowden is reportedly carrying four laptop computers with a cornucopia of American intelligence documents that he downloaded to a thumb drive this spring while working in Hawaii for the National Security Agency as an employee of Booz Allen Hamilton. The Guardian newspaper of Britain has already disclosed a week ago that Mr. Snowden provided the newspaper with documents showing that during a conference in London in 2009, the United States was able to access the communications of Dmitri A. Medvedev, then the Russian president and now the prime minister — a disclosure that will almost certainly cause Russia to review its codes and other procedures for top leaders.

Dmitri V. Trenin, director of the Carnegie Moscow Center, said he considered it likely that Mr. Snowden would remain in Russia, a country that is increasingly positioning itself as a protector of people like Mr. Assange, whom Western governments wish to prosecute.

“I don’t think there is any other country that would stand up to U.S. pressure, which will be tremendous,” Mr. Trenin said. “The Chinese don’t want to spoil their relationship with the United States. Russia is sometimes embracing conflict with the U.S.”

He noted that Russia Today, the state-financed English-language cable news channel, has become a platform for figures like Mr. Assange, who are unlikely to appear through mainstream Western news outlets. 

“Russia is turning into a haven — virtually, intellectually and physically — for those who have an ax to grind with the West, who are whistle-blowers or have problems with Western authorities,” he said. “It’s the only country in the world that at this point can afford it, or thinks it can afford it.” Mr. Trenin said that even if Mr. Snowden transfers in Moscow and continues to another destination, like Havana or Caracas, Russia will still have played a central role in his flight from prosecution.

“The minute Aeroflot got the information that a certain person by the name of Snowden is about to buy a ticket, this information would be immediately transferred to the quote-unquote competent authorities,” he said. “It would be a political decision to give him a ticket or deny him a ticket.”

Mr. Snowden’s departure could limit any damage to Chinese-American relations from his sojourn here, although American officials are likely to press ahead with their inquiries into what role, if any, China may have played in his initial choice of Hong Kong.

For Hong Kong, his departure means that the city can avoid a painful tug-of-war over whether to surrender him, with the United States demanding him back while nationalists in mainland China and some human rights activists in Hong Kong were calling for him to be allowed to remain.

Regina Ip, a lawmaker and former secretary of security in Hong Kong, predicted that the United States would initially be annoyed with Hong Kong for letting Mr. Snowden leave. “I think your government will be upset for a while, but I hope that they will shrug it off, because our government acted in accordance with the law,” she said. “Our government officials can breathe a sign of relief.”

But even though Mr. Snowden left Hong Kong, he may still have handed China a considerable diplomatic and public relations coup. The state-run Xinhua news agency said in a commentary late Sunday morning, before news of his flight from Hong Kong, that Mr. Snowden’s disclosures had undermined the Washington’s argument that the Chinese government was guilty of widespread computer hacking.

His claims “demonstrate that the United States, which has long been trying to play innocent as a victim of cyber attacks, has turned out to be the biggest villain in our age,” the commentary said. 

Keith Bradsher reported from Hong Kong and Ellen Barry from Moscow. Sarah Lyall contributed reporting from London.

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sur le même sujet, voir :

http://www.lepoint.fr/monde/snowden-en-route-pour-moscou-23-06-2013-1684979_24.php#xtor=EPR-6-[Newsletter-Quotidienne]-20130623

Snowden en route pour Moscou

Le Point.fr - Publié le 23/06/2013 à 10:20 - Modifié le 23/06/2013 à 17:06

L'ex-agent de la CIA pourrait se rendre au Venezuela via Cuba. WikiLeaks dit l'avoir aidé à quitter le pays.

Edward Snowden a quitté Hong Kong dimanche pour un "pays tiers", échappant provisoirement aux griffes des États-Unis que cette nouvelle péripétie devrait vivement courroucer. Le gouvernement de Hong Kong a confirmé dans un communiqué succinct qu'Edward Snowden avait quitté le petit territoire autonome chinois où il s'était réfugié le 20 mai dernier avant la publication d'informations explosives sur la surveillance électronique des personnes et des institutions par les États-Unis. "Aujourd'hui, Snowden a quitté Hong Kong volontairement pour un pays tiers de façon légale et normale", a déclaré un porte-parole du gouvernement. Il a ajouté que les autorités hongkongaises "(n'avaient) pas obtenu d'informations pertinentes" justifiant son arrestation comme le demandaient les États-Unis où il encourt 30 ans de réclusion après avoir été inculpé d'espionnage, vol et utilisation illégale de biens gouvernementaux. Le communiqué du gouvernement hongkongais a précisé que les États-Unis avaient été informés de son départ.

Edward Snowden a embarqué à 11h04 (03H04 GMT) sur le vol SU213, a affirmé le grand quotidien anglophone de Hong Kong, leSouth China Morning Post. Il a atterri peu après 17 heures à l'aéroport Sheremetyevo de Moscou selon les services aéroportuaires. La capitale russe ne serait qu'une étape, a précisé le SCMP. Selon la compagnie Aeroflot, il aura ensuite pour destination Caracas via La Havane, ont indiqué dimanche les agences russes citant une source à la compagnie aérienne Aeroflot. "Un passager portant ce nom va arriver aujourd'hui à Moscou par le vol SU213 en provenance de Hong Kong, et demain, 24 juin, il décollera par le vol SU150 pour La Havane", avait indiqué la source d'Aeroflot citée par l'agence Itar-Tass, ajoutant : "Le même jour, il quittera La Havane pour Caracas sur un vol local." Une source d'Aeroflot a confirmé à la radio Écho de Moscou que le nom de Snowden était enregistré sur un vol La Havane - Caracas, numéro V04101. Le service de presse d'Aeroflot n'était pas joignable dimanche pour confirmation.

Une arrivée discrète

À son arrivée à l'aéroport de Moscou, Edward Snowden n'est pas sorti avec les autres passagers, certains témoins affirmant qu'il avait été emmené à bord d'une voiture diplomatique. L'Américain n'était pas parmi les passagers du vol SU213 d'Aeroflot qui franchissaient le contrôle des passeports au terminal F de l'aéroport de Moscou - Cheremetievo, selon une journaliste de l'AFP. Mais plusieurs passagers ont affirmé à l'AFP avoir vu une voiture garée sur le tarmac à côté de l'avion, ce qui pourrait indiquer qu'il a quitté l'aéroport de cette manière.

Le site internet WikiLeaks a par ailleurs affirmé sur son compteTwitter "avoir aidé" Edward Snowden à trouver l'asile politique "dans un pays démocratique". L'ex-consultant informatique de l'agence de renseignement américaine a multiplié les révélations depuis le 5 juin, date des premiers articles fracassants du Guardian et duWashington Post sur la collecte par l'Agence nationale de sécurité (NSA) de données téléphoniques aux États-Unis et des communications d'étrangers sur internet. 

Allégations sur de l'espionnage américain vers la Chine 

Dimanche, le Sunday Morning Post a assuré que la NSA interceptait "des millions de SMS" envoyés sur les réseaux mobiles chinois. Pékin avait réagi avec virulence à ces dernières allégations, l'agence Chine nouvelle qualifiant les Etats-Unis de "plus grand voyou de notre temps" en matière d'attaques informatiques. Les dernières accusations sur un espionnage des réseaux mobiles chinois "montrent que les Etats-Unis, qui ont longtemps essayé de se présenter comme une victime innocente des cyber-attaques, se sont révélés être le plus grand voyou de notre temps" dans ce domaine, selon l'agence officielle chinoise. Les Etats-Unis "doivent des explications à la Chine et aux autres pays qu'ils sont accusés d'avoir espionné. Ils doivent faire connaître au monde l'étendue et les objectifs de leurs programmes de piratage clandestins", souligne Chine nouvelle.

La NSA, affirme Edward Snowden, a aussi piraté en 2009 les serveurs de Pacnet, une entreprise basée à Hong Kong et qui gère l'un des réseaux de fibre optique les plus étendus de la région, de même que la prestigieuse université Tsinghua à Pékin qui abrite les six principaux réseaux sur lesquels on peut accéder aux données internet de millions de Chinois. "La NSA fait toutes sortes de choses, comme pirater des compagnies de téléphones portables chinoises pour voler tous vos SMS", a déclaré M. Snowden dans un entretien avec le Sunday Morning Post réalisé le 12 juin selon le journal. Auparavant, le Guardian avait décrit un programme baptisé "Tempora", conduit par le centre britannique des écoutes (GCHQ), qui permet de recueillir des données internet et téléphoniques transmises par des câbles à fibres optiques. Selon des statistiques officielles citées par le journal, les Chinois ont échangé près de 900 milliards de messages textuels en 2012, soit 2,1% de plus qu'en 2011. Edward Snowden évoque le piratage massif de l'université Tsinghua, établissement prestigieux qui compte parmi ses diplômés l'actuel président chinois Xi Jinping et l'ancien président Hu Jintao. Selon lui, le piratage de cet établissement était encore en cours en janvier dernier.

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et aussi, dans le Canard Enchaîné de cette semaine :

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