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08/12/2010

Obésité : la publicité des industriels de l’agroalimentaire, toujours en cause

lu sur :

http://dircom.inserm.fr/synthesedepresse/

 

Obésité : la publicité des industriels de l’agroalimentaire, toujours en cause

L'UFC Que Choisir constate que, quatre ans après une première mise en garde, les industriels de l'agroalimentaire ont à peine réduit la promotion publicitaire des denrées trop grasses et trop sucrées, qu'ils proposent aux enfants.
Les budgets pub-télé ont même gagné 20 % en quatre ans. Selon l'UFC, l'Inpes "ne peut pas combattre à armes égales avec le matraquage publicitaire de l'industrie agroalimentaire", avec un budget près de 200 fois inférieur à celui des annonceurs.
Entre autres revendications, l'UFC exige une "amélioration de la qualité nutritionnelle de l'offre alimentaire" destinée aux enfants.

 

22/08/2009

Les probiotiques ("BIFIDUS", "LACTOBACTER" ...), l'industrie alimentaire et l'obésité

Lu dans le Canard Enchaîné du 12/8/09 :

 

Un chercheur français ( Didier Raoult, Unité de Recherche en Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales Émergentes, CNRS-IRD UMR 6236, Marseille) publie un éditorial dans Nature Reviews Microbiology  (7, 616 - September 2009) où il pose la question d’un lien possible ( je dirais même : vraisemblable ) entre les probiotiques ( “LACTOBACTER“ , BIFIDUS ACTIF “ ... voir les yaourts DANONE et autres dans votre super-marché favori ) utilisés dans l’industrie alimentaire et l’obésité.

Le scan de l’article du Canard est dans l’album ci-contre “PROBIOTIQUE-YAOURTS”.

 

Le texte (en anglais) de l’éditorial  à l’origine de l’article est ci-dessous.

Bonne lecture ! Et si vous voulez lutter contre l’obésité, parlez-en autour de vous !

 

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Editorial

 

Nature Reviews Microbiology 7, 616 (September 2009) | doi:10.1038/nrmicro2209

 

Probiotics and obesity: a link?

 

Didier Raoult

Author affiliations

Didier Raoult is at Unité de Recherche en Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales Émergentes, CNRS-IRD UMR 6236, Faculté de Médecine, Université de la Méditerranée, 27 Boulevard Jean Moulin, 13385 Marseille, France.

Email: didier.raoult@gmail.com

 

Didier Raoult cautions that the use of probiotics as growth promoters in the farming industry means that further studies should be carried out before they are regarded as safe for use in humans.

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Recent studies on the human gut microbiota have shown that obesity is associated with a reduction in Gram-negative bacteria, specifically members of the Bacteroidetes, and an increase in Gram-positive Firmicutes1. Additionally, it has been shown that the gut microbiota of obese individuals is less diverse than that of non-obese individuals2. The manipulation of the gut microbiota — through the administration of probiotics and antibiotics — has been used for growth promotion in farm animals for 50 years and is regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the United States and by the European Commission in Europe. The probiotics used for this purpose in the farming industry include products containing Firmicutes, in particular Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp. and Enterococcus spp. These products have been marketed and used in most of the animal farming industry, including in the production of poultry, calves and pigs, and many studies have shown increases in the size and weight of the young animals that are given these bacterial additives. Antibiotics have also been used for this purpose, although this practice is now banned in Europe.

 

Firmicutes are also used directly as therapeutic adjuvants in humans, under the names probiotics, prebiotics or, more generally, 'functional foods'. In the United States, these products are categorized by the FDA as 'generally regarded as safe' (GRAS; ironically, 'gras' translates as 'fat' in French). Analysis of these products showed that they contain high concentrations of live Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. (up to 108 organisms per gram or millilitre). These concentrations are similar to those used in animals as growth promoters. In the United States, probiotic-containing products such as dairy drinks or yogurts typically contain >107 lactobacilli. Lactobacillus acidophilus is found in functional foods in amounts that are equivalent to those used to cause weight gain in piglets. Lactobacillus spp. have also been associated with weight gain in children treated for diarrhoea3. In addition, some studies have demonstrated weight increases in children who received Lactobacillus rhamnosus, independent of the disease for which this probiotic was prescribed4. When these data are considered in the context of the epidemic of childhood obesity that is occurring in many developed countries, it seems essential to quickly and more completely study the effects of probiotics in the paediatric population.

 

Functional foods, including fermented dairy products containing probiotics, are gaining popularity in many countries, among children in particular, but little research has been carried out on the connection between these products and weight gain. These food products are often sold under the guise of having positive effects on children's health, but there are little conclusive data to support these claims. Surprisingly, the level of regulation for the use of probiotics in humans is less strict than that for their use in animals. The specific bacterial species involved and the concentrations at which they are present are often not made clear to consumers, and to my knowledge the long-term effects of probiotics as human food supplements or as adjunctive therapy have never been rigorously evaluated. In my opinion, further work using experimental models should be carried out to evaluate the role of these products as animal growth promoters before they are recommended for use in children.


It is my view that there is a danger that we may be causing a real human health problem by promoting for human consumption products containing bacteria that have been associated with weight gain in the animal food industry. Any chemical compound with such a side effect in experimental animals would be rigorously tested before being allowed to be used in food. I think that before probiotic and prebiotic products can be regarded as safe, it is imperative that they are tested in experimental models that evaluate the propensity of these products to cause obesity in humans.

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References

 

- 1. Ley, R. E. et al. Human gut microbes associated with obesity. Nature 444, 1022–1023 (2006).

Brief Communications

Nature 444, 1022-1023 (21 December 2006) | doi:10.1038/4441022a; Received 8 October 2006; Accepted 10 November 2006; Published online 21 December 2006

Microbial ecology: Human gut microbes associated with obesity

Ruth E. Ley1, Peter J. Turnbaugh1, Samuel Klein1 & Jeffrey I. Gordon1

 

Abstract

Two groups of beneficial bacteria are dominant in the human gut, the Bacteroidetes and the Firmicutes. Here we show that the relative proportion of Bacteroidetes is decreased in obese people by comparison with lean people, and that this proportion increases with weight loss on two types of low-calorie diet. Our findings indicate that obesity has a microbial component, which might have potential therapeutic implications.

 

1. Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA

Correspondence to: Jeffrey I. Gordon1 Email: jgordon@wustl.ed

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- 2.      Turnbaugh, P. J. et al. A core gut microbiome in obese and lean twins. Nature 457, 480–484 (2009).

 

Letter

Nature 457, 480-484 (22 January 2009) | doi:10.1038/nature07540; Received 29 June 2008; Accepted 14 October 2008; Published online 30 November 2008

A core gut microbiome in obese and lean twins

 

Peter J. Turnbaugh1, Micah Hamady3, Tanya Yatsunenko1, Brandi L. Cantarel5, Alexis Duncan2, Ruth E. Ley1, Mitchell L. Sogin6, William J. Jones7, Bruce A. Roe8, Jason P. Affourtit9, Michael Egholm9, Bernard Henrissat5, Andrew C. Heath2, Rob Knight4 & Jeffrey I. Gordon1

 

1. Center for Genome Sciences

2. Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA

3. Department of Computer Science

4. Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309, USA

5. CNRS, UMR6098, Marseille, France

6. Josephine Bay Paul Center, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts 02543, USA

7. Environmental Genomics Core Facility, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208, USA

8. Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and the Advanced Center for Genome Technology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019, USA

9. 454 Life Sciences, Branford, Connecticut 06405, USA

 

Correspondence to: Jeffrey I. Gordon1 Correspondence and requests for materials should be addressed to J.I.G. (Email: jgordon@wustl.edu).

 

Abstract

The human distal gut harbours a vast ensemble of microbes (the microbiota) that provide important metabolic capabilities, including the ability to extract energy from otherwise indigestible dietary polysaccharides1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. Studies of a few unrelated, healthy adults have revealed substantial diversity in their gut communities, as measured by sequencing 16S rRNA genes6, 7, 8, yet how this diversity relates to function and to the rest of the genes in the collective genomes of the microbiota (the gut microbiome) remains obscure. Studies of lean and obese mice suggest that the gut microbiota affects energy balance by influencing the efficiency of calorie harvest from the diet, and how this harvested energy is used and stored3, 4, 5. Here we characterize the faecal microbial communities of adult female monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs concordant for leanness or obesity, and their mothers, to address how host genotype, environmental exposure and host adiposity influence the gut microbiome. Analysis of 154 individuals yielded 9,920 near full-length and 1,937,461 partial bacterial 16S rRNA sequences, plus 2.14 gigabases from their microbiomes. The results reveal that the human gut microbiome is shared among family members, but that each person's gut microbial community varies in the specific bacterial lineages present, with a comparable degree of co-variation between adult monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs. However, there was a wide array of shared microbial genes among sampled individuals, comprising an extensive, identifiable 'core microbiome' at the gene, rather than at the organismal lineage, level. Obesity is associated with phylum-level changes in the microbiota, reduced bacterial diversity and altered representation of bacterial genes and metabolic pathways. These results demonstrate that a diversity of organismal assemblages can nonetheless yield a core microbiome at a functional level, and that deviations from this core are associated with different physiological states (obese compared with lean).

 

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- 3.      Chouraqui, J. P. et al. Assessment of the safety, tolerance, and protective effect against diarrhea of infant formulas containing mixtures of probiotics or probiotics and prebiotics in a randomized controlled trial. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 87, 1365–1373 (2008).

Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 May;87(5):1365-73.

Assessment of the safety, tolerance, and protective effect against diarrhea of infant formulas containing mixtures of probiotics or probiotics and prebiotics in a randomized controlled trial.

Chouraqui JP, Grathwohl D, Labaune JM, Hascoet JM, de Montgolfier I, Leclaire M, Giarre M, Steenhout P.

Gastroenterology and Nutrition Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Grenoble, Grenoble, France. jpchouraqui@chu-grenoble.fr

 

BACKGROUND: Probiotics and prebiotics are considered to be beneficial to the gastrointestinal health of infants. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate infant formulas containing probiotics and synbiotics (combinations of probiotics and prebiotics) for safety and tolerance. DESIGN: In a prospective, controlled, double-blind, randomized trial, healthy full-term infants were exclusively fed a control formula or study formulas containing Bifidobacterium longum BL999 (BL999) + Lactobacillus rhamnosus LPR (LPR), BL999 + LPR + 4 g/L of 90% galactooligosaccharide/10% short-chain fructooligosaccharide (GOS/SCFOS), or BL999 + Lactobacillus paracasei ST11 (ST11) + 4 g/L GOS/SCFOS from < or = 2 to 16 wk of age (treatment period). Safety and tolerance were assessed based on weight gain during the treatment period (primary outcome) as well as recumbent length, head circumference, digestive tolerance, and adverse events (secondary outcomes), which were evaluated at 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 52 wk of age. RESULTS: Two hundred eighty-four infants were enrolled. During the treatment period, difference in mean weight gain between control and study formula groups in both the intention-to-treat and per-protocol populations were within the predefined equivalence boundaries of +/-3.9 g/d, indicating equivalent weight gain. Secondary outcomes did not show significant differences between groups during the treatment period. CONCLUSION: Infants fed formulas containing probiotics or synbiotics show a similar rate in weight gain compared with those fed a control formula and tolerate these formulas well.

 

full text free :

http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/full/87/5/1365

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-4.      Guandalini, S. et al. Lactobacillus GG administered in oral rehydration solution to children with acute diarrhea: a multicenter European trial. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 30, 54–60 (2000).

Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition: January 2000 - Volume 30 - Issue 1 - pp 54-60

Original Articles

Lactobacillus GG Administered in Oral Rehydration Solution to Children with Acute Diarrhea: A Multicenter European Trial

Guandalini, Stefano; Pensabene, Licia; Zikri, Mona Abu; Dias, Jorge Amil; Casali, Luigi Gobio; Hoekstra, Hans; Kolacek, Sanja; Massar, Karin; Micetic-Turk, Dusanka; Papadopoulou, Alexandra; de Sousa, Jaime Salazar; Sandhu, Bhupinder; Szajewska, Hanna; Weizman, Zvi

 

Background: The probiotic Lactobacillus GG is effective in promoting a more rapid recovery of acute, watery diarrhea in children with rotavirus enteritis. Very limited information is available, however, on the potential role of such agents in nonrotaviral diarrheal episodes. Furthermore, no evidence is available concerning the efficacy of Lactobacillus GG administered in the oral rehydration solution during oral rehydration therapy. A multicenter trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Lactobacillus GG administered in the oral rehydration solution to patients with acute-onset diarrhea of all causes.

 

Methods: Children 1 month to 3 years of age with acute-onset diarrhea were enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled investigation. Patients were randomly allocated to group A, receiving oral rehydration solution plus placebo, or group B, receiving the same preparation but with a live preparation of Lactobacillus GG (at least 1010 CFU/250 ml). After rehydration in the first 4 to 6 hours, patients were offered their usual feedings plus free access to the same solution until diarrhea stopped.

 

Results: One hundred forty children were enrolled in group A, and 147 in group B. There were no differences at admission between the groups in age, sex, previous types of feeding, previous duration of diarrhea, use of antibiotics, weight, height, weight-height percentile, prevalence of fever, overall status, degree of dehydration, and percentage of in-versus outpatients. Duration of diarrhea after enrollment was 71.9 ± 35.8 hours in group A versus 58.3 ± 27.6 hours in group B (mean ± SD;P = 0.03). In rotavirus-positive children, diarrhea lasted 76.6 ± 41.6 hours in group A versus 56.2 ± 16.9 hours in groups B (P < 0.008). Diarrhea lasted longer than 7 days in 10.7% of group A versus 2.7% of group B patients (P < 0.01). Hospital stays were significantly shorter in group B than in group A.

 

Conclusions: Administering oral rehydration solution containing Lactobacillus GG to children with acute diarrhea is safe and results in shorter duration of diarrhea, less chance of a protracted course, and faster discharge from the hospital.

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SOURCE de l'éditorial :

http://www.nature.com/nrmicro/journal/v7/n9/full/nrmicro2209.html